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Case 1 of “The Virginia Way of Life Must Be Preserved” Exhibit
just filed lawsuits
Image by W&M Libraries
Shown here is an image of Case 1 from the exhibit "The Virginia Way of Life Must Be Preserved", on display in the Nancy Marshall Gallery on the 1st floor of Swem Library at the College of William & Mary. This exhibit is part of "From Fights to Rights: The Long Road to a More Perfect Union," Swem Library’s project to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Civil War and the 50th anniversary of the Civil Rights Movement. The exhibit is on display from June 18-October 22, 2012.

The following is a transcription of the labels presented in this case:

Brown v. Board of Education, 1954:

The students and parents of Farmville’s Moton High School worked with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in suing the school board of Prince Edward County. The NAACP previously had sought to force school boards to make black schools equal to white ones, but in 1950 it had changed its strategy to try to overturn segregation as unconstitutional. It was involved in cases all over the country, not just in Virginia. The Supreme Court bundled four of the cases, including the Farmville case, together into Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Thurgood Marshall and other NAACP lawyers argued before the Court that segregation violated the “equal protection” clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. constitution. Based on tests showing that black children preferred white dolls over black dolls, they also argued that mandatory segregation psychologically damaged children of color, making them internalize feelings of racial inferiority.

On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in the Brown case that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” Chief Justice Earl Warren, pictured here speaking at William & Mary later that year, worked hard to get a unanimous decision and became the target of white Southerners’ worst venom. In May 1955, in Brown II, the Supreme Court ordered that desegregation proceed “with all deliberate speed” but left supervision of the task to federal district courts.

The photograph of Moton High’s Class of 1956 visibly demonstrates that desegregation did not happen overnight. The school was just as segregated in 1956 as the schools attended by class sponsor Mabel Ragsdale Watson and her sister Laura Ragsdale when they were school girls in Roanoke decades earlier, as seen in Laura’s photo album.

The Gray Commission, 1954-1955:

The Brown decision stunned Virginia’s leaders. At first, they seemed willing to accept the Court’s ruling, but angry newspaper editors and white voters called for resistance. Governor Thomas Stanley then appointed a commission, chaired by State Senator Garland Gray and consisting entirely of white legislators, to determine how to respond. In November 1955, the Gray Commission issued recommendations designed to delay desegregation but allow localities to decide if they would desegregate quickly or not. Among other proposals, the Gray plan recommended giving tuition vouchers so parents could send their children to segregated private schools. The assembly quickly adopted the Gray Commission report in principle. Since the state constitution did not allow public money to be used for private schools, it needed to be amended for tuition vouchers to be possible. A referendum on January 9, 1956 overwhelmingly approved calling a constitutional convention which did just that.

Massive Resistance, 1956-1957:

In response to Brown II, the Arlington County School Board announced in late 1955 that it would gradually integrate. The NAACP helped parents and students file lawsuits to force integration elsewhere in Virginia. Ardent segregationists, fearing that integration anywhere
could lead to integration everywhere, demanded stronger resistance to Brown. Nowhere was resistance greater than among the white population of Southside, the most heavily black region in Virginia. Southside was the heart of the Byrd Organization, the Democratic machine that had run the state since the 1920s under the leadership of U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, pictured here with Republican State Senator Ted Dalton. In February 1956, Byrd proposed a program of “massive resistance” to school integration. Byrd supported the Virginia assembly’s resolution of “interposition” that declared the Brown decision unconstitutional and unenforceable, although this had no actual legal effect. More importantly, in September 1956, the assembly passed a program of massive resistance laws, known as the Stanley Plan after the governor. The plan denied state aid to any locality that allowed desegregation of even one school, authorized the governor to close any school that federal courts ordered integrated, and provided tuition grants to help white parents send their children to segregated private schools if their local public school closed.

School Closings, 1959:

The Stanley Plan met with immediate challenges in federal courts, with cases pending through 1957 and into 1958. As the school year began in the fall of 1958, federal judges ordered previously all-white schools in Warren County, Charlottesville, and Norfolk to integrate. Governor J. Lindsay Almond, Jr. shut the schools down rather than allowing them to integrate. In November, Norfolk voters voted against petitioning the governor to reopen the city schools, even though the closing affected 10,000 white students and seventeen black students. On January 19, 1959, the state supreme court ruled that the closings violated the state constitution’s provision requiring there to be public schools and the federal district court ruled that the closings violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause. The courts ordered that the schools be reopened.

Prince Edward County, 1959-1964 and Beyond:

After briefly considering shutting the state’s public schools down entirely, Governor Almond conceded defeat and reluctantly allowed integration to proceed very slowly. The more extreme segregationists denounced Almond as a traitor. The state legislature once again adopted a local-option plan, with tuition grants and a pupil placement program that allowed students to be assigned to schools in ways that minimized “race mixing.” The county government in Prince Edward County, in the heart of Southside, shut down its public school system entirely. Using state tuition grants, many white students attended a new private academy, but other white students and all the students of color were left without formal schooling unless they left the county. The Supreme Court in 1964 ordered Prince Edward to reopen its public schools. At that point, only five percent of African American students statewide attended integrated schools.

In 1968, the Supreme Court invalidated the pupil-placement program and ordered an end to separate white and black school systems in a decision involving New Kent County. And in 1970, a federal judge ordered a busing plan implemented to desegregate Richmond schools. Not until the late 1980s did busing end.

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See swem.wm.edu/scrc/ for further information and assistance.

James Dyson
just filed lawsuits
Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer
Sir James Dyson puts on Dyson product launch with a difference: Sydney, Australia…

Sir James Dyson, the British billionaire industrial designer (not to be confused with Tony Stark from Iron Man – Marvel Comics fame) who invented the dual cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, has just finished hosting his fabulous launch event at the Sydney Theatre Co Ltd, Pier 4.

It’s understood he took a fair swipe at "competitor) robot vacuums as "pathetic" with poor suction and no navigating skills. Yes, the others suck – but not in a good way.

A lot of the (product) attention was on his latest product, a tap that can also dry your hands in about 12 seconds. Dyson, who rocketed his company to nearly 4000 staff and .5 billion in annual sales, advised he would only launch a robot vacuum when he got it right.

New product snapshot – the Dyson hybrid dryer-tap…

Robot models launched in Australia recently include the 9 Robomaid, LG’s Roboking range (9-49) and Samsung’s 9 Navibot. Dyson didn’t name and shame but was dismissive of the current lot, criticising their navigation and efficiency which meant they offered poor battery performance and cleaning ability.

"They’ve got whiskers sticking out of them – whiskers don’t clean anything they just disturb the birds," he told Fairfax Media.

"It’s a difficult job and I’m not rushing out a gimmick robot to pretend to people we’re cleaning the floor, we’re not doing that we’re doing it properly."

Robomaid is one of the robot vacuums on the market.

Despite coming up with his vacuum cleaner breakthrough in the late 1970s, it only reached the British market 10 years later, and Dyson is now a global market leader. A third of British homes now have a Dyson.

The company has also launched other innovations such as bladeless fans and an "Airblade" hand dryer that uses jets of air to scrape the water off the hands. The same sort of technology but with a far more advanced motor ("three times faster than any electric motor has gone before") powers the new hybrid dryer-taps.

Dyson has wrestled for years to prevent companies copying his designs, winning a million damages award from Hoover in 2000. Now, the main offenders are out of Asia and Dyson thinks intellectual property protection is weaker because people are getting away with copying.

"Koreans and the Chinese are copying things and I think it’s very bad," he said. "It’s said by certain people that that increases competition, actually it decreases competition because all they’re doing is copying the market leader."

He said the copycat companies could produce cheaper products because they haven’t incurred all the development costs and associated risks.

"It’s morally wrong, I think it’s legally wrong and I think it hurts the consumers because the consumer doesn’t get a choice," he said. "Intellectual property should be supported better; the law should be made stronger."

In October last year Dyson filed a lawsuit alleging a "spy" employee stole the blueprints to a £100 million (9.7 million) technology and passed them to rival Bosch.

Dyson said western countries such as Australia and Britain need to focus on educating more scientists and engineers, as they are increasingly being overtaken by countries in Asia.

"40 per cent of all graduates from Singapore are engineers," he said. "For Britain, Australia, the US and other European countries to compete in any way they’ve got to heavily arm themselves with technology."

Classy event in Sydney…

It wasn’t a cheap and nasty event, as is too often the case with product launches. Dyson impressed with wit, goodwill and loads of great food and drinks, which looked and tasted 5 star. It was a great vibe and news media was treated with respect, friendliness and delicious treats. How could we not share the story and photos far and wide across media and internet – which was no doubt another masterstroke by the colourful billionaire and his brains trust. If you have the budget – Dysons’ are well worth a close look.

Websites

Dyson Australia
www.dyson.com.au

Eva Rinaldi Photography
www.evarinaldi.com

James Dyson
just filed lawsuits
Image by Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer
Sir James Dyson puts on Dyson product launch with a difference: Sydney, Australia…

Sir James Dyson, the British billionaire industrial designer (not to be confused with Tony Stark from Iron Man – Marvel Comics fame) who invented the dual cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, has just finished hosting his fabulous launch event at the Sydney Theatre Co Ltd, Pier 4.

It’s understood he took a fair swipe at "competitor) robot vacuums as "pathetic" with poor suction and no navigating skills. Yes, the others suck – but not in a good way.

A lot of the (product) attention was on his latest product, a tap that can also dry your hands in about 12 seconds. Dyson, who rocketed his company to nearly 4000 staff and .5 billion in annual sales, advised he would only launch a robot vacuum when he got it right.

New product snapshot – the Dyson hybrid dryer-tap…

Robot models launched in Australia recently include the 9 Robomaid, LG’s Roboking range (9-49) and Samsung’s 9 Navibot. Dyson didn’t name and shame but was dismissive of the current lot, criticising their navigation and efficiency which meant they offered poor battery performance and cleaning ability.

"They’ve got whiskers sticking out of them – whiskers don’t clean anything they just disturb the birds," he told Fairfax Media.

"It’s a difficult job and I’m not rushing out a gimmick robot to pretend to people we’re cleaning the floor, we’re not doing that we’re doing it properly."

Robomaid is one of the robot vacuums on the market.

Despite coming up with his vacuum cleaner breakthrough in the late 1970s, it only reached the British market 10 years later, and Dyson is now a global market leader. A third of British homes now have a Dyson.

The company has also launched other innovations such as bladeless fans and an "Airblade" hand dryer that uses jets of air to scrape the water off the hands. The same sort of technology but with a far more advanced motor ("three times faster than any electric motor has gone before") powers the new hybrid dryer-taps.

Dyson has wrestled for years to prevent companies copying his designs, winning a million damages award from Hoover in 2000. Now, the main offenders are out of Asia and Dyson thinks intellectual property protection is weaker because people are getting away with copying.

"Koreans and the Chinese are copying things and I think it’s very bad," he said. "It’s said by certain people that that increases competition, actually it decreases competition because all they’re doing is copying the market leader."

He said the copycat companies could produce cheaper products because they haven’t incurred all the development costs and associated risks.

"It’s morally wrong, I think it’s legally wrong and I think it hurts the consumers because the consumer doesn’t get a choice," he said. "Intellectual property should be supported better; the law should be made stronger."

In October last year Dyson filed a lawsuit alleging a "spy" employee stole the blueprints to a £100 million (9.7 million) technology and passed them to rival Bosch.

Dyson said western countries such as Australia and Britain need to focus on educating more scientists and engineers, as they are increasingly being overtaken by countries in Asia.

"40 per cent of all graduates from Singapore are engineers," he said. "For Britain, Australia, the US and other European countries to compete in any way they’ve got to heavily arm themselves with technology."

Classy event in Sydney…

It wasn’t a cheap and nasty event, as is too often the case with product launches. Dyson impressed with wit, goodwill and loads of great food and drinks, which looked and tasted 5 star. It was a great vibe and news media was treated with respect, friendliness and delicious treats. How could we not share the story and photos far and wide across media and internet – which was no doubt another masterstroke by the colourful billionaire and his brains trust. If you have the budget – Dysons’ are well worth a close look.

Websites

Dyson Australia
www.dyson.com.au

Eva Rinaldi Photography
www.evarinaldi.com

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